Steering auto parts: Steering gear
Steering gear serves as an intermediary between the steering wheel and the steerable wheels. The steering gear plays a major role in ensuring that the car can be steered in different directions when driving. Due to this it is possible to “contact” the road. The steering gear reduces counteractions of the steerable wheels to the steering up to the steering wheel. When steering, a typical appearance of a reduction occurs. This causes the movement of the steering wheel in a specific ratio. This is somewhere from 10:1 to 25:1. In this way the ratio of the steering wheel is longer. Thus, the steering is “smoother”. There are different types of steering gear constructions. The most popular are worm, screw and rack-and-pinion steering gears.
Normally steering is a sturdy and durable system. However, it is necessary regularly to check it. Permanent operability is an essential requirement. It concerns the safe driving. If you have noted something strange with steering, it is necessary immediately to check it.
Steering must be repaired in an authorized service centre. Repair works must be done by experienced and trained professionals. Also, there must be working conditions for necessary works. One of them is a working platform. This is all about the interference of the car owner. If you need spare car parts, our online shop is the right place. Exhaust system, brakes, final drive, starter, indicator, rear-view mirror and many other car parts at low prices you will find in our Internet store.
The steering mechanism should be diagnosed by two persons. One of the most frequent faults is steering wheel free play. It is detected by turning the steering wheel to the extreme position in both directions, with simultaneously checking gaps between the mechanisms. They should not exceed 1 to 1.5 mm. The gaps should be measured with a free play gauge.
Also, diagnose the hubs, tie rods and drag links, and inspect the fasteners and protective covers.
To check whether power steering mechanism operates properly, measure pressure in the mechanism. For this purpose, attach a pressure gauge between the power steering pump and the actuator. Then start the engine and gradually rev up the engine to 1,000 rpm. Measure the pressure in the hydraulic power steering having turned the steering wheel to the extreme position. When there are no faults, the value of this parameter should not exceed 80 to 85 kgf/cm2.
The system should be diagnosed and preventive measures should be taken annually to bleed air from the power steering. Also, within the framework of the scheduled maintenance, the required oil level is restored, and fasteners are tightened.
You may notice that the steering mechanism requires diagnostics by the following symptoms:
The main reasons of the steering mechanism premature wear are rusting or clogging caused by ingress of moisture or abrasive particles inside the unit. Fast wear of tie-rod end ball joints may be explained by ruptured dust boot. Bearings of the steering shaft are destroyed due to the lack of lubrication.
Mechanical damage or deformation of the tie rod is the result of frequent driving on poor quality roads. Also, damage may be caused by hitting a curb or another obstacle.
Depressurization between the mechanism and the power steering takes place due to damage of the connecting hoses or weakening of their fasteners. To ensure that no air is left in the system, air-bleeding should be performed when installing a new pipeline and replacing the oil.
Incorrect operation of the power steering is the result of breakage or insufficient tension of the pump belt. Its performance also depends on the quality of the working fluid.
Service life of the steering mechanism depends on compliance with the operation rules and observance of the steering system maintenance schedule.
To remove faults of the steering mechanism, disassemble the casings of the system, and remove dust boots, then disconnect the fasteners of the power steering and the steering shaft. Check that the mechanism is not fouled and it does not contain foreign objects. For repair, you will need a pressure gauge and dynamometer, and help of another person.
The mechanism elements that failed through being worn or deformed may be replaced separately. However, in case of the power steering system malfunction, complete replacement of the component is required.